President Joe Biden began a visit to Saudi Arabia on Friday by giving Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman a fist bump instead of a handshake as Washington looks to reset its relationship with a country that Biden once pledged to make a "pariah" on the global stage.
Energy and security interests prompted Biden and his aides to decide not to isolate the Gulf oil giant that has been strengthening ties with Russia and China.
But the U.S. national security adviser dampened expectations of any immediate oil supply boost to help bring down high costs of gasoline and ease the highest U.S. inflation in four decades.
Biden, who said he would discuss human rights during the visit, was met by Prince Khalid al-Faisal, the governor of Mecca province, which includes the Red Sea city of Jeddah.
The U.S. president then headed to the royal palace where Saudi TV showed him fist-bumping the crown prince. At the start of Biden's Middle East trip, officials said he would avoid close contacts, such as shaking hands, as a precaution against COVID-19. But the president ended up engaging in hand-shaking in Israel.
The White House said Biden would hold a bilateral meeting with Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz and then, with his team, have a working session with the crown prince, known as MbS, and Saudi ministers.
The White House did not immediately provide a list of names of people greeting the president as is customary. When former U.S. President Donald Trump, who enjoyed close ties with MbS, visited Saudi Arabia in 2017 he was met by King Salman, who has made few recent public appearances. The Mecca governor met France's president when he visited Jeddah late last year.
The sensitive visit will be closely watched for body language and rhetoric and will test his ability to reset relations with the crown prince, the kingdom's de facto ruler.
U.S. intelligence concluded that MbS directly approved the 2018 murder of Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi, while the crown prince denies having a role in the killing.
Biden wants to "recalibrate" Washington's relations with Saudi Arabia and not rupture them, Sullivan stressed.
The U.S. president said on Thursday his position on Khashoggi's murder was "absolutely" clear. Biden made his "pariah" comment less than two years ago after the journalist's killing and while campaigning for president.
Biden said he would raise human rights in Saudi Arabia, but he did not say specifically if he would broach the Khashoggi murder with its leaders.
Saudi ambassador Reema bint Bandar Al Saud, who was part of the Saudi greeting party, reiterated in an article for Politico the kingdom's "abhorrence" of the killing, describing it as a gruesome atrocity, and said it cannot define U.S.-Saudi ties.
She said the relationship should also not be seen in the "outdated and reductionist" oil-for-security paradigm.
"The world has changed and the existential dangers facing us all, including food and energy security and climate change, cannot be resolved without an effective U.S.-Saudi alliance."
NO IMMEDIATE OIL BOOST
Jeddah hosts a larger gathering of Arab leaders Saturday.
Biden will discuss energy security with leaders of Gulf oil producers and hopes to see more action by OPEC+ to boost output, but there were unlikely to be any bilateral announcements from the talks, U.S. national security adviser Jake Sullivan told reporters en route to Jeddah from Israel.
"We believe any further action taken to ensure that there is sufficient energy to protect the health of the global economy, it will be done in the context of OPEC+," said Sullivan. "We are hopeful that we will see additional actions by OPEC+ in coming weeks."
The OPEC+ group that includes Russia meets next on Aug. 3.
Biden will also encourage peace and press for a more integrated Middle East during his trip, an administration official said. Topics include strengthening a truce in Yemen, "balance" in energy markets and technological cooperation in 5G and 6G.
Ahead of the visit, Saudi Arabia said it would open its airspace to all air carriers, paving the way for more overflights to and from Israel, in what Biden described as a historic and important step towards building a more integrated and stable Middle East.
Biden was the first American president to fly from Israel directly to Jeddah, a step the White House says represents a “small symbol” of warming Israeli-Saudi ties. Two years ago, Riyadh gave a tacit nod for the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain to normalize relations with Israel.
The U.S.-brokered deals known as the Abraham Accords established a new axis in the region, where Gulf states share Israel's concerns about Iran's nuclear and missiles programs and proxy network. Sunni Muslim Saudi Arabia and Shi'ite Muslim Iran have for years vied for regional influence but launched direct talks last year in an effort to contain tensions.
The Saudi ambassador said U.S.-Saudi efforts to ensure peace and security should focus on enhancing cooperation and "reinforcing a rules-based system" to confront the "vision of chaos promoted by Iran."
During his visit to Israel, Biden and Prime Minister Yair Lapid signed a joint pledge to deny Iran nuclear weapons, which the Islamic Republic denies seeking.
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