Patrick has been researching and writing about breakthrough tech for over 30 years. He has written over 200 editorials for USA Today. He has appeared in the Wall Street Journal and on CNN’s Crossfire news program.

Patrick has also served as a consultant for national political campaigns and Fortune 500 companies. He’s interviewed and speaks regularly to a host of nationally known CEOs and Nobel Prize-winning scientists and researchers.
Tags: Nicotinamide riboside | oxaloacetate | aging

3 Supplements That Stop Aging

By Friday, 06 May 2016 04:10 PM Current | Bio | Archive

One of the main causes of aging is weakening communication networks in cells between the genome and mitochondria, organelles that work as the powerhouses of our bodies.

A mitochondrion is like a digestive system of the cell that draws energy out of the chemical bonds of glucose to produce action-ready molecules called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

ATP molecules supply cells with chemical energy — much like electronic devices get from batteries. That helps us move and think, and overall keeps us alive.

The energy needs of cells, however, fluctuate. As a result, mitochondria have to adjust. For that to happen, a cell’s mitochondria must communicate with the genome, which announce the cell’s current energy needs.

The problem is that this communication network deteriorates as we age, and that deterioration damages our health. The big anti-aging news is that there are ways to restore the network — even when we are quite old.

Many scientists now believe that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) is the main messenger. However, NAD⁺ levels fall with age, leaving the communication pathways of metabolic regulation to gradually go bad.

One way to increase NAD⁺ levels is to ingest NAD precursors — molecules the body will metabolize into NAD⁺. The good news is that you can find these supplements on the market.

One naturally occurring NAD⁺ precursor is nicotinamide riboside (NR), which has been studied in clinical trials by Dr. Charles Brenner at the University of Iowa.

Nicotinamide riboside increases NAD⁺ levels in humans. Even better, it seems to be completely safe. Does this make it one of the anti-aging breakthroughs we’ve been waiting for?

It’s hard to get past “maybe,” for several reasons.

Testing any compound for specific diseases in human trials makes the compound a “drug.” So a human trial of this precursor for a mitochondrial disease would invite the Food and Drug Administration to bump nicotinamide riboside off the shelves of the supplement market.

Human longevity studies could prove NR’s value for life extension, but you don’t really know how something affects a life span until you’ve waited long enough for test subjects to die. So a valid controlled study would take decades and data from thousands of people.

However, some scientists believe we already know enough to warrant use of this precursor for life extension.

“NAD replacement is one of the most exciting things happening in the biology of aging,” says Nir Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

“The frustration in our field is that we have shown we can target aging, but the FDA does not [recognize it] as an indication.”

Even skeptics are only partly skeptical.

“There is enough evidence to be excited, but not completely compelling evidence,” said Brian K. Kennedy, CEO of the California-based Buck Institute for Research on Aging.

Another NAD⁺ precursor is a variant of oxaloacetate (OAA), a molecule that occurs naturally in cellular functions.

Adding oxaloacetate to the diets of animals extends their lives. But compound quickly decomposes unless it is stored at a very low temperature.

Then, in 2006, an engineer struck by oxaloacetate’s anti-aging benefits produced a variant that is stable at room temperature, which opened the door for supplementation.

A patent on the process of stabilizing oxaloacetate was granted in 2015. The University of Kansas Medical Center Research Institute has completed preliminary trials for using the substance to treat Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Oxaloacetate increases the availability of NAD⁺ through an entirely different mechanism than nicotinamide riboside. This suggests that the two compounds may be complementary, so I take both.

Animal studies have shown that a third compound, acetyl-L-carnitine, works synergistically with oxaloacetate, so I take it as well. Acetyl-L-carnitine is a naturally occurring substance that breaks down in the blood to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for conversion to ATP.

One important study showed that rats suffering from induced stroke regained their ability to learn when treated with oxaloacetate and acetyl-L-carnitine. This seems like a very good sign, because in humans the ability to form memories tends to decrease with age.

There has been a lot of research on oxaloacetate, but a paper published in the Journal of Human Molecular Genetics stands out.
It reports that oxaloacetate increases energy production in the brain, improves processing of insulin for greater energy and resistance to Type 2 diabetes, reduces inflammation in the body, and stimulates neuron growth in mice.

Mitochondrial processes are similar across mammalian species, so anything that helps mitochondria in mice will likely help mitochondria in you… and in your dog, too.

Another supplement for ATP energy production is ubiquinol, a form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) that appears to be especially active. Ubiquinol is part of the electron transport chain for synthesizing ATP. It’s available in most stores that sell supplements, as is acetyl-L-carnitine.

Each compound increases NAD⁺ via a different pathway, so they might complement one another. In time, clinical trials will nail down the most beneficial combination and dosages of NAD⁺ precursors.

Get Patrick Cox's fascinating report on today's anti-aging supplements straight from the biotech lab. 
 

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One of the main causes of aging is weakening communication networks in cells between the genome and mitochondria, organelles that work as the powerhouses of our bodies.
Nicotinamide riboside, oxaloacetate, aging
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2016-10-06
Friday, 06 May 2016 04:10 PM
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