Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial infection of the genital tract by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum. It passes from one person to another during direct sexual contact. Syphilis can also be passed from an infected mother to the fetus during pregnancy which can result in stillbirth or serious birth defects.
In latent syphilis treatment infections, clinical manifestations are absent. They are detected by serologic testing. Latent syphilis acquired within the preceding year requires early latent syphilis treatment. Other cases of latent syphilis are called late latent syphilis or latent syphilis of unknown duration.
Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics such as penicillin G benzathine, doxycycline, or tetracycline (for patients allergic to penicillin). The period of latent syphilis treatment depends on the extent of the syphilis and factors such as the patient's overall health. For latent syphilis treatment during pregnancy, penicillin is the drug of choice. Tetracycline cannot be used for latent syphilis treatment because it is dangerous to the fetus. Erythromycin may not prevent congenital syphilis in the fetus.
Syphilis herpes is spread by direct sexual skin-to-skin contact with the infected site. Another strain of the virus, Herpes Simplex Type 1 (HSV-1), is most commonly spread by nonsexual contact and usually causes sores on the lips. However, HSV-1 can also be transmitted through oral sex and can cause genital infections.
Syphilis tests detect antibodies to the bacterium that causes syphilis (Treponema pallidum) in blood, body fluid, or tissue. The tests are used to screen for or to confirm syphilis infection. Tests used to screen for syphilis include; Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests, Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test, and Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) test.
Tests used to diagnose syphilis include: Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), dark field microscopy, and microhemagglutination assay (MHA-TP)
Cardiac, ophthalmic, auditory abnormalities and gummatous lesions are associated with tertiary syphilis. (A gumma is a soft, non-cancerous growth resulting from the tertiary stage of syphilis).
Some of the many syphilis drugs include:
- Macrolide antibiotics
- Wyamycin E
The top five syphilis drugs are; Benzathing penicillin, Procaine penicillin, doxycycline, amoxycillin, and azithromycin.
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